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主谓一致,是英语学习的基础,也是考试的重点
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主谓一致,是英语学习的基础,也是考试的重点
浏览:134 发布日期:2021-01-01

主谓一致是英语学习的基础,也是考试的重点,那么找到正确的主语和动词将有助于纠正主谓一致的错误,以下例举主谓一致的一些规则。

一、当主语由两个或两个以上的名词或代词组成,并用 and 连接时,谓语用复数形式,例如:

The man and the woman were looking at the baby.

那个男人和那个女人在看孩子。

He and his friends know the answer. 

他和他的朋友知道答案。

二、当两个主语用 and 连接起来指同一个名词时,谓语用单数,例如:

Bed and breakfast costs from £ 30 per person per night.

住宿加次日早餐每人每晚30英镑起。

Rice and curry is his favorite food.

咖喱饭是他最喜欢的食物。

Breaking and entering is against the law.

破门而入是违法的。

Red beans and rice is my mom's favorite dish.

红豆饭是我妈妈最喜欢的菜。

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三、复合主语

1、当两个单数主语由 or 连接时,either/or,neither/or 或 not only/but also 连接时,谓语用单数形式,例如:

Neither the dog nor the cat eats cheese. 

狗和猫都不吃奶酪。

Either my mum or my dad is cooking dinner. 

不是我妈妈就是我爸爸在做饭。

2、当连接的是两个复数主语时,谓语用复数,例如:

Not only dogs but also cats are available at the animal shelter.

动物收容所里不仅有狗,还有猫。

Either the chairs or the boxes have to be moved.

椅子或箱子都得搬。

当连接的两个主语中一个是单数且另一个是复数时,谓语跟就近的主语保持一致,例如:

Either Rachel or her sisters were telling a lie.

不是瑞秋就是她的姐妹们在撒谎。

Either the bikes or the car is getting sold.

不是自行车就是这辆汽车在卖。

Neither Rachel nor her sisters were telling the truth.

雷切尔和她的姐妹们都没有说实话。

Neither the musicians nor the conductor is ready for the performance.

音乐家们和指挥家都没有为演出做好准备。

My sisters or my mother is going to make me a dress.

我的姐姐或妈妈要给我做件衣服。

My mother or my sisters are going to make me a dress.

我妈妈或我姐姐要给我做件衣服。

四、有的时候主语与谓语通常被其他单词、短语或其他成分分开,如:along with,besides,as well as 或 not 等等,但这不影响主谓一致,例如:

The politician, along with the newsmen, is expected shortly.

这位政治家和新闻记者很快就要来了。

Excitement, as well as nervousness, is the cause of her shaking.

兴奋和紧张是她发抖的原因。

The colors of the rainbow are beautiful.

彩虹的颜色很漂亮。

The dog, who is chewing on my jeans, is usually very good.

这条狗嚼着我的牛仔裤,通常很好。

五、不定代词作主语

1、each one,everyone,everybody,anyone,nobody,someone 或 no one 等作主语时,谓语动词用单数,例如:

Nobody knows the correct answer.

没有人知道正确答案。

Is anyone home?

有人在家吗?

2、few,many,several 或 both 等单独作主语时,谓语动词用复数,例如:

Few were left alive after the flood.

洪水过后几乎没有人活着。

六、当主语是计量单位、时间或金钱时,谓语往往用单数,例如:

Twenty years is a long time.

二十年是很长的一段时间。

Five miles is not a long distance.

五英里不是很长的距离。

Ten dollars is a lot of money.

十美元是一大笔钱。

但是,以下例句谓语要用复数,因为 dollars 在这里不指计量单位,例如:

Ten dollars were scattered on the floor.

十美元散落在地板上。

七、当句子以 there 开头时,谓语与跟在其后的主语保持一致,例如:

There is a question.

有一个问题。

There are twenty students in my class.   

我们班有二十个学生。

八、当主语是集合名词如:group,jury,family,audience,population,team,staff,pack 和 herd 等时,谓语动词可以是单数,也可以是复数,取决于是否把集合名词当作一个整体,例如:

All of my family has arrived/have arrived.

我的家人都到了。

Most of the jury is here/are here.

大部分陪审团都在这里。

A third of the population was opposed/were opposed to the bill.

三分之一的人口反对这项法案。

九、当主语被 every,each,no,either 或 neither 修饰时,谓语动词用单数,例如:

No fighting is allowed.

不许打架。

No smoking or drinking is allowed.

禁止吸烟或饮酒。

Every child has a right to education.

每个孩子都有受教育的权利。

Every man and woman is required to check in.

每个男人和女人都要登记入住。

十、当主语是表示部分的单词如 half,none,more,some,a lot,majority 和 all 等时,谓语根据 of 后面的名词变化而变化,若 of 后面的是复数名词,则谓语用复数,若 of 的后面是单数名词,则谓语用单数,例如:

A lot of the pie has disappeared.

馅饼的大部分都不见了。

A lot of the pies have disappeared.

很多馅饼都不见了。

A third of the city is unemployed.

这个城市三分之一的人失业。

A third of the people are unemployed.

三分之一的人失业了。

All of the pie is gone.

整个馅饼都没了。

All of the pies are gone.

所有的馅饼都不见了。

Some of the pie is missing.

馅饼有些部分不见了。

Some of the pies are missing.

有些馅饼不见了。

十一、使用复数动词和集体名词都必须注意准确和一致,以下是经常看到和听到的有缺陷的句子,例如:

工作人员正在决定如何投票。

有缺陷:The staff is deciding how they want to vote.

连贯性:The staff are deciding how they want to vote.

其实为了避免写出这类有缺陷的句子,我们可以改写句子为:

The staff members are deciding how they want to vote.

十二、在含有 be 动词或其他类型虚拟语气中,用 were 替代 was 或动词原形替代谓语单复数,例如:

I wish it were Friday.

我希望是星期五。

She requested that he raise his hand.

她要求他举手。

十三、不定式和动名词作主语:

1、单个动名词或动名词短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数,例如:

Standing in the water was a bad idea.

站在水里是个坏主意。

2、当 and 连接两个独立的不定式或动名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数,例如:

To walk and to chew gum require great skill.

边走边嚼口香糖需要高超的技巧。

Swimming in the ocean and playing drums are my hobbies.

在海里游泳和打鼓是我的爱好。

十四、书籍、电影、小说和其他类似作品的标题被视为单数,它们作主语时,谓语动词用单数,例如:

The Burbs is a movie starring Tom Hanks.

《邻居》是一部由汤姆·汉克斯主演的电影。